By Dr. Melissa Wehler, Dean of Humanities and Sciences
This is the second installment of the six-part series on inclusivity in the classroom. The first installment, Building an Inclusive Classroom: A Starting Place, provides an introduction to the topics covered in the series.
Building an inclusive classroom begins well before the first student registers for the class or a textbook is selected for the reading list. In the classroom, a faculty’s identity—privileges and disadvantages—is represented in explicit and implicit ways. Explicitly, our identities are represented by our bodies, our language, and our appearance (yes, even if we teach online). For instance, whether or not I choose to confront my gender or race in the classroom, my body still signifies them. Implicitly, the knowledge, belief, values, and skills that inform our actions, behaviors, and attitudes have come from our lived experiences. The course materials I select, test questions I write, and syllabus policies I create are the culmination of my experience—positive and negative.
To create an inclusive classroom, therefore, we should recognize and acknowledge our socially conferred privileges (and disadvantages) and how they influence our pedagogy. When we talk about socially conferred privilege, we are referring to the social systems that provide certain persons or groups special advantages or rights on the basis of an unearned status. Commonly, we talk about privilege through the lens of race, gender, ability, religion, age, and class, though it’s important to recognize that these are far from the only privileges that faculty confront personally and pedagogically.
In the classroom, inclusivity begins with the faculty member who establishes the basic parameters of the class, which are based on their own unique circumstances: their training, experiences, and philosophies. Because courses begin in the personal, we must acknowledge our own socially conferred privileges as part of our pedagogy.
By no means an exhaustive list, here are some ways to help start this process:
Take a personal inventory. A personal inventory will help you recognize (perhaps for the first time) your socially conferred privileges. A personal inventory can focus around a specific set of privileges such as race, gender, or ability or it can be a mixture of different types of privilege. You can use a pre-created inventory (such as this one from Routledge or the lists provided by Barnett). You can also generate a personal inventory by listing out privileges you experienced in the span of a week or a month.
Seek out resources. Start locally. Campus resources such as the Center for Teaching Excellence and the Diversity Office provide training and materials specific to your campus life and culture. Then, think globally. Professional organizations, such as the American Association of University Professors, also have resources for faculty about diversity, inclusion, and privilege.
Invite conversations. Conversations about privilege are happening informally on college campuses all of the time, but faculty can also find ways to ‘invite’ these conversations: create a brown bag series, invite guest speakers, or organize a book reading. Faculty might also organize a viewing of a documentary or webinar followed by a moderated discussion. Remember, if you invite conversation, it’s important you listen to learn and not listen to respond.
Acknowledging and understanding more about our personal privileges helps us to recognize where these privileges manifest in our pedagogy. Once we are able to see ourselves more clearly, we are also able to see where our personal privileges have created gaps in our teaching approach.
Here are just a few areas to consider:
Challenge privilege. For instance, avoid normalizing certain behaviors in the classroom that privilege one student or student group over another, especially with ‘good’ and ‘bad’ labels. For more, see Goodman’s lists about ways to challenge privilege identity in the classroom.
Representation matters. Course materials should be representative not only of the subject being taught but of the subjects being taught. Course materials (textbooks, articles, studies, tests, examples) should incorporate a range of experiences and identities that reflect the students in the class.
Vary approaches. Part of ‘unpacking the invisible knapsack’ means that just because it worked for you as a student or that it worked/works for some students, doesn’t mean that it worked/works for others. By varying your approach to teaching (lecture, small group, discussion, flipped), you build opportunities for different students and different strengths.
Appeal to the experts. When a difficult situation, conversation, or topic comes up in class, give the students the scholarship and allow them to do the deep digging. Not only is it a great exercise in critical thinking and problem-solving, but it demonstrates that this conversation is historical, robust, and on-going.
Listen actively. Listening doesn’t just refer to answering questions or responding to a point during discussion. It includes reading body language, word choice, and tone. It can also mean ‘listening’ to the silences: the emails not returned or the questions left blank. Responding to these moments validate students’ experiences whether through positive feedback or an acknowledgment of their concerns.
Conversations about privilege inside and outside of the classroom can be cloaked in feelings of shame, guilt, and blame; however, personal discomfort with confronting privilege is no excuse to shy away from the topic—just as students, peers, and even ourselves cannot ‘opt-out’ of systems of privilege. Instead, by recognizing, understanding, and challenging privilege personally and pedagogically, we, as educators, make the first concrete step in creating an inclusive classroom.
Adams, M., L. A. Bell, and P. Griffin, eds. (2007).Teaching for diversity and social justice: A sourcebook. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Barnett, P. E. (2013). Unpacking teachers’ invisible knapsacks: Social identity and privilege in higher education. Liberal Education. vol. 99, no. 3. https://www.aacu.org/publications-research/periodicals/unpacking-teachers-invisible-knapsacks-social-identity-and
Goodman, D. J. (2010). Helping Students Explore Their Privileged Identities. Diversity and Democracy. American Association of Colleges and Universities. Spring 2010. vol. 13. no. 2. https://www.aacu.org/publications-research/periodicals/helping-students-explore-their-privileged-identities
Flaherty, C. (2016). Racial literacy as a professor’s responsibility. Inside Higher Ed. https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/06/20/aaup-sessions-center-professors-role-and-responsibilities-regarding-classroom
Maher, F. A. & M. K. Tetreault. Diversity and privilege: We need to understand how privilege works before we can make diversity work. Academe. AAUP. January-February 2009. https://www.aaup.org/article/diversity-and-privilege#.WLcMB2_yuUk
McIntosh, P. (1989) White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. The National SEED Project. https://nationalseedproject.org/white-privilege-unpacking-the-invisible-knapsack
Melissa Wehler, Ph.D. serves as the Dean of Humanities and Sciences and Professor of English at Central Penn College. Her academic writing has been published in several essay collections including Demons of the Body and Mind, Transnational Gothic, and A Quest of Her Own: Essays on the Female Hero in Modern Fantasy where she discusses topics including the gothic, feminism, performance, and culture. She enjoys teaching classes about writing, literature, culture, and film and has won two teaching awards for her student-centered approach.